Store utfordringer for bankene! (PSD2, Åpne APIer, Open Banking)

Store utfordringer for bankene! (PSD2, Åpne APIer, Open Banking)

Bank Building
Licensed from: IvanaMilic / yayimages.com

Har du hørt om PSD2, Åpne APIer eller muligens Open Banking? Ikke? Vel, da er det lite rolig at du jobber i finansnæringen! Innen finansnæringen (bankene) er dette (for øyeblikket) den store stygge ulven!

Det er PSD2 (Revised Payment Service Directive – Revidert betalingstjenestedirektiv) som er synderen. Dette er et nytt direktiv fra EU som blir en del av det norske lovverket fra januar 2018.  EU ønsker at PSD2 skal skape økt konkurranse og økt innovasjon innen banknæringen i EU og EØS området. PSD2 skal fremhjelpe dette på 2 måter:

  1. Betaling (som i betaling av regninger):
    (PISP: Payment Initiation Service Provider)
    PSD2 tvinger bankene til å la sine kunder betale sine regninger og gjøre sine pengeoverførsler via tredjeparter. Dette betyr at registeringen av en betaling, som du i dag gjør i Nettbanken eller Mobilbanken, gjøres hos en tredjepart, og denne tredjeparten sender så betalingen videre inn til banken din for behandling, via et IT grensesnitt, et API (Application Program Interface). Tredjeparten her kan være Facebook, Amazon, Finn.no, COOP, REMA, en annen bank, eller en ny aktør vi ikke har hørt om ennå.
  2. Tilgang til betalingsinformasjon (kontoutskrifter):
    (AISP: Account Information Service Provider.)
    PSD2 pålegger bankene å la sine kunder gi tillatelse til tredjeparter å hente ut betalingsinformasjon fra kundens betalingskonti. Dette gjøres ved at tredjeparten henter betalingsinformasjonen fra banken din via et IT grensesnitt, et API. Tredjeparten kan her være Facebook, Amazon, Finn.no, COOP, REMA, en annen bank, eller en ny aktør vi ikke har hørt om ennå.

Risikoen for bankene knyttet til PSD2 er at de mister kontakten med kundene sine. I dag har banken i hovedsak kontakt med kundene hvis de er inne i Nettbanken eller Mobilbanken for å sjekke saldo eller gjennomføre betalinger. Da kan banken kommuniserer med kundene, og prøve å selge dem nye produkter eller prøve å få dem til å oppgradere eksisterende produkter. Hvis kunden utfører sine betalinger, ev. sjekker saldo hos en tredjepart mister banken kontakten med kunden, banken kan få redusert kundelojalitet, og et større press på priser. I tillegg kan banken får større konkurranse og marginpress på utlånssiden, hvis f.eks. tredjepartene begynner å distribuere lån fra forskjellige aktører.

EU sitt motiv for å innføre PSD2 er et ønske om å øke konkurransen i bankmarkedet, og dermed gi forbrukerne i EU lavere priser og bedre, nye, og mer innovative bankløsninger.

Den gevinsten man ser for seg for bankkundene er som følger:

  • På betalingssiden vil PSD2 muliggjøre at en tredjepart kan vis deg alle dine betalingskonti (med saldo) som du har i alle bankene i Norge, og potensielt i hele Europa. Dette betyr at de kan gi deg en totaloversikt over alle betalingskontoene dine og deres saldoer, og du kan velge hvilken konto vil bruke for å betale en spesifikk regning. I tillegg Kan du få råd om at du får høyere renter eller mindre gebyrer hvis du flytter større pengebeløp fra en konto en bank til en konto i en annen bank, eller gjør betalingene din i en annen bank. Hvis en nettbutikk blir en tredjepart kan man også få muligheten til å betale for en handel du gjennomfører på f.eks. Finn.no inne i Finn.no gjennom denne løsningen, istedenfor å bruke kredittkort, debetkort eller VIPPS, da vil nettbutikken spare de prosentene av hver betalingstransaksjon som i dag går som gebyrer kortleverandørene. I tillegg ser EU for seg at PSD2, ved å gi de mange nye og meget innovative FinTech selskapene tilgang til betalingsfunksjonaliteten, vil gjøre at det kommer mange nye og innovative løsninger knyttet til betaling ut på markedet, noe som vil hjelpe til med å gi bankkundene en enklere, billigere og bedre hverdag.
  • Ved å gi tredjeparter tilgang til din betalingsinformasjon håper EU at disse tredjepartene, ved å bruke og analysere denne informasjonen, vil kunne lage nye og innovative tjenester som skal hjelpe bankkundene til en enklere hverdag. Eksempler på dette kan være å analysere forbruket ditt, og foreslå måter du kan spare penger på, eller anbefale deg å endre betalingsvaner for å spare gebyrer. Videre kan vi ser for oss introduksjon av mer avanserte rådgivningsløsninger som basert på betalingsinformasjon, som din inntekt og dine forbruks vaner (+ev. annen informasjon du er villig til å gi dem), kan gi deg råd relatert til f.eks. boligkjøp, lån og sparing/investeringer.

Nå er det ikke slik at hvem som helst kan bli en PSD2 aktør. Heldigvis! Vi vil ikke ha kriminelle organisasjoner som PSD2 aktører! Skal du være med her må du søke om konsesjon fra Finanstilsynet, og jeg forventer at Finanstilsynet også vil komme med en del krav og forskrifter som disse aktørene må forholde seg til for å ikke miste konsesjonen. (Ala IKT Forskriften m.m. som bankene må forholde seg til.) I tillegg er det stor fokus på sikkerheten, både mellom kunden og PSD2 aktøren, og mellom PSD2 aktøren og bankene. Antar vi ser krav om pålogging til PSD2 aktørens løsninger med BankID, og strenge autentiseringskrav mellom PSD2 aktørens løsninger og bankenes APIer. I tillegg må du trolig som kunde godkjenne en PSD2 aktør i bankens Nettbank eller Mobilbank før aktøren kan hente ut dine konti/data fra banken via APIene og send inn betalinger. Dette betyr også at du kan fjerne disse tillatelsene i Nettbanken/Mobilbanken om du ønsker det på et senere tidspunkt.

Så hvordan vil PSD2 påvirke banknæringen, f.eks. i løpet av 2 til 3 år? La oss se på mulige scenarier:

  1. Banken tar grep og beholder mer eller mindre den posisjonen de har i dag, fordi det er bankene kundene stoler på når det gjelder å ta vare på pengene deres, og bankene kommer med nye innovative tjenester som de enten har utviklet selv, eller har fått på plass gjennom partnerskap med innovative gründerbedrifter. I dette scenariet har de nye tredjepartsaktører ikke klart å ta noen signifikat markedsandel fra bankene.
  2. Noen få nye og innovative aktører kommer på markedet med nye, brukervennlige og spennende løsninger, noe som gjør at de tar mer eller mindre hele markedet fra bankene. Her har de nye aktørene klart å levere løsninger som kundene synes er så bra at de, på tross av sin sterke lojalitet til bankene, velger å ta dem i bruk. Bankene ender opp som rene produktleverandører og mister kontroll over kundene sine.
  3. Det kommer mange nye aktører på markedet, og bankene mister markedsandeler til disse. Men ingen klarer å vinne kampen om kundene, og vi ender opp med et meget fragmentert marked der veldig mange aktører, inklusiv bankene, kjemper for å ta nye markedsandeler, og for å beskytte sine eksisterende markedsandeler.

Personlig tror jeg at scenarium A er det mest sannsynlige. Bakgrunnen til dette er at bankkundene er meget lojale overfor bankene sine, og også stoler på bankene når det gjelder å ta vare på pengene deres. I tillegg jobber bankene nå med å få på plass nye løsninger, ofte i samarbeid med nye innovative grundere, slik at de kan kjempe mot de nye aktørene på like fot.

Figur1: Til venstre på figuren er dagens lukkede system for håndtering av banktjenester. Til høyre er situasjonen etter innføring av SPD2.

#Teknologi #Bank #Banker #API #PSD2 #OpenAPI #ÅpneAPI #PISP #AISP #OpenBanking

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